Wow, I've never heard of Pope Joan. I just had a read and seems it has a very interesting history.
When thinking of traditional board games, Cribbage comes to mind. (I guess technically its a card game, but does have a board too)
There are lots of examples of old traditional boards made from all manner of materials, esp ivory, bone or tusk
Its so long since I played, I don't think I can remember the rules, but at home somewhere we have a board belonging to the grandparents-in-law.
Making a cribbage board (and learning and playing the game) would be a good bushcraft project ....
Interesting stuff! I need to do some research on the Pope Joan game - never heard of it before.
It's a little earlier than the 17th century I know, but I play Hnefatafl when camping with my son, and have a cloth for that. It is an old board game from the viking era, although variations exist in several forms across Europe. One played here in Lappland is called Tablut.