BushcraftOz | The Australian Bushcraft Forum

This is a sample guest message. Register a free account today to become a member! Once signed in, you'll be able to participate on this site by adding your own topics and posts, as well as connect with other members through your own private inbox!

Fungi Amanita phalloides (Death cap)

Dusty Miller

Alexander Pearce
Archivist
Joined
Sep 6, 2011
Messages
1,818
Reaction score
236
This is topical, two people having died after eating some at New Years, another survived, but had not consumed much.

Amanita phalloides is known as the death cap mushroom, or the destroying angel. It takes up to 72 hours to produce a fatality. The toxic compound is a ring made of several (8) amino acids. When the poison enters the liver, the ring is broken by liver enzymes. It then unfolds into its toxic form and prevents the cell from making more proteins, the cell then dies. After the liver cell dies, fragments of cell can become lodged in the filtering structures of the kidneys. Either mechanism can lead to death, depending on dose. The oral LD50 of amanitin toxin is approximately 0.1 mg/kg. A single mouthful of this mushroom can be fatal. It has no unpleasant taste or odour, being a favourite poison in the roman period, since food tasters woudl survive for some time after consumption.

This is a european mushroom, and lives around the roots (mycorhizal fungus) of broadleaf imported trees such as oak, and also around some pines. It and other Amanita mushrooms are common in southern states. It resembles straw mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) and caesers mushrooms (Amanita caesarea), which are edible, leading to misidentification and deaths.

vic gov site.

http://www.rbg.vic.gov.au/science/i...edible-and-poisonous-fungi/amanita-phalloides


collection of images.

http://www.google.com.au/search?q=a...v&sa=X&ei=csQET-XiLs-jiAeHoqndCg&ved=0CEgQsAQ

other info
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amanita_phalloides

This has some good pointers on IDing deathcaps.
http://www.anbg.gov.au/fungi/deathcap.html
 
Last edited:

Aussie123

Never Alone In The Bush
Staff member
Moderator
Joined
Jun 16, 2011
Messages
5,443
Reaction score
603
Location
Melbourne, Victoria
I have been doing some separate research (on another "project") and found some interesting references (from multiple sources).
Your post today had prompted me to publish this Wiki extract (below) which seems to be a good summary.

I'm not advocating this or commenting on its effectiveness, method of administration etc - its just FYI

Of course no one can stress enough the need to be very careful when foraging for any food


Extract from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milk_thistle

Amanita mushroom poisoning:
The efficacy of thirty different treatments was analyzed in a retrospective study of 205 cases of Amanita phalloides (death cap) mushroom poisoning.[18] Both penicillin and hyperbaric oxygen independently contributed to a higher rate of survival. When silybin [silibinin] was added to the penicillin treatment, survival was increased even more. In another 18 cases of death cap poisoning, a correlation was found between the time elapsed before initiation of silybin therapy, and the severity of the poisoning.[19] The data indicates that severe liver damage in Amanita phalloides poisoning can be prevented effectively when administration of silybin begins within 48 hours of mushroom intake. In a recent 2007 event, a family of six was treated with milk thistle and a combination of other treatments to save them from ingested poisonous mushrooms. While five of the six made a full recovery, the grandmother showed liver recovery but was overcome by kidney failure related to the poisonous mushrooms
 

Aussie123

Never Alone In The Bush
Staff member
Moderator
Joined
Jun 16, 2011
Messages
5,443
Reaction score
603
Location
Melbourne, Victoria
That’s very sad news.

To my very-very amateur eye, a couple of the distinguishing features seem to be the yellow-greenish tinge (although some are white) and I think importantly the vulva (at the base of the mushroom). Although vulvas can be very difficult to see in grass and debris, or may be absent due to insect or animal activity.
dc1.jpg

The volva and annulus (the “ring” at the top) appear because the immature mushroom emerge covered in a veil, with the stalk inside. As the mushroom grown, the veil breaks apart, leaving the volva at the bottom and the annulus at the top.

dc2.jpg
dc3.png

(Hope this gets past the bad-word checker) !

There are many poisonous mushrooms around and there is no single test or rule which will exclude all dangerous ones, or all safe ones.
Extreme caution is required.
 
Last edited:

Dusty Miller

Alexander Pearce
Archivist
Joined
Sep 6, 2011
Messages
1,818
Reaction score
236
The vulva and annulus (the “ring” at the top) appear because the immature mushroom emerge covered in a veil, with the stalk inside. As the mushroom grown, the veil breaks apart, leaving the vulva at the bottom and the annulus at the top.

LOL. I think you meant Volva, or at least your conscious mind did. Of course, Phalloides mean "like a wang". Those filthy minded mycologists.
 

Scrubby

Russell Coight
Joined
Jul 16, 2013
Messages
19
Reaction score
0
Stick with your instincts and common sense when foraging for edible fungi, if in doubt don't even think about putting it in your basket. stick with what you know, Never take a chance on a fungi. My personal preference is to stick with the slippery s, common field (BROWN GILLS) and Inkies. Go with what you know
 

Enigma1

Lofty Wiseman
Joined
Oct 26, 2013
Messages
129
Reaction score
0
Scrubby, gill colour on it's own is not really an identifier. These (below) will make you sick, but people always think they are Agaricus Campestris.

Agaricus xanthodermus
Agaricus xanthodermus, commonly known as the yellow-staining mushroom or simply the yellow-stainer, is a mushroom of the genus Agaricus, which displays a strong yellow colouration at the base of the stem when cut.
 

survivalist

Lofty Wiseman
Joined
Mar 6, 2014
Messages
114
Reaction score
1
Location
Sydney
I've generally heard that the less colourful it is the less likely it is to be poisonous. don't think this is entirely true though. I found an interesting mushroom the other day that had a cap which looked like a lychee. this was up in burrowra
 

Aussie123

Never Alone In The Bush
Staff member
Moderator
Joined
Jun 16, 2011
Messages
5,443
Reaction score
603
Location
Melbourne, Victoria
I've generally heard that the less colourful it is the less likely it is to be poisonous. don't think this is entirely true though. .....

The problem with muhrooms/fungi is that there aren't any rules-of-thum for safe vs not safe.

The best advice is not to eat any (which you are not certain about).
 
Top